How To Become A Judge In India (2023)

Since the early days of our civilizations, we are being ruled by some higher officials. The authority to maintain law and punish the convict was handed over to the kings. Kings were considered the highest officials during the conventional days. Thanks to the 200 years of rule of the British, we could make our own democratic country. In search of freedom from the Judge, we Indians were successful in making our Government. The government was made from three official bodies – The legislative body, the Executive body, and the Judiciary body. These three bodies together constitute the government.

If we explain in brief, the legislative body makes rules and regulations, the Executive body implements the laws, and the Judiciary body is responsible for maintaining the law. Now the exciting fact is Judiciary is even the legislative body and executive body cannot influence the judiciary system. The Judiciary system has the supreme power in the government. Being part of government is quite a respectable job; being part of the Judiciary system is a decent job, but it is a heavy responsibility. If you want to be a judge, then get yourself prepared for the enormous responsibilities. You can find three judges in India- Supreme court judge, High court judge, and subordinate court judge.

Judiciary plays a pivotal role in implementing and maintaining law and order in the country. Hence you can comprehend that to become a Judge in India, and you have to overcome hurdles and challenges. In this article, You will be served with every detail of information that will help you gather information about how you can prepare yourself for the highest position of the judiciary system. Here we will start from the basics of the Judiciary system, the details of the Judicial exam, details of eligibility, to the process you should follow to become a Judge.
Hopefully, this post will give you enough information about your queries. Keep reading and happy, informative journey!

Also check – How to become politician in India / How to become IAS officer in India

How To Become A Judge In India

Judiciary System Of India

This section of this article may seem a bit elementary. Still, it is imperative to understand our topic’s roots, especially when we are talking about the most responsible job in India. If you are willing to work as a judge in the future and serve India’s public, you must go through this section. It is very crucial to know about India’s Judiciary system.

A single court can’t handle the problems of the entire countries, due to which the Judiciary is divided into three sections. The first one is the supreme court responsible for the national-level cases. The second one is the High courts accountable for the state-level issues; the third one is the Subordinate court responsible for district-level cases. The subordinate court is also known as the district court. These different courts appoint the Judges, who are responsible for giving justice to the convict relying on the constitution of India and the facts. Let us have a look at the characteristics of the different types of courts.

Supreme Court

  1. The supreme court is the ultimate or highest court in India. It has extensive power in the form of appellate, advisory and original jurisdictions. It also has the authority of judicial review.
  2. Presently, The supreme court has a total of 31 Judges. Among these, 31 judge chief justice of India is also included.
  3. The president of India appoints the Judge after consulting with the collegium.
  4. To become a Judge of the Supreme Court of India, a person should be a citizen of India. He/ she should have practiced as a judge in the high court for a minimum of 5 years.

High Court

  1. High court holds the topmost position in the state administration. However, it works under the guidance of the supreme court of India.
  2. Every High Court includes a chief justice and other judges.
  3. To become a judge of the High Court, the person has to be a citizen of India, should have worked as the judicial officer for ten years.
  4. In the constitution, you may not find the age limit for the appointment of the Judge.

Subordinate Courts

  1. This is the lowest court known as subordinate court as it works under the supreme court’s guidance and the high court.
  2. The district court Judges are appointed by the Governor after consulting the High Court. The Governor appoints other judicial officers to consult the state Public Service Commission and the high court.
  3. To recruit the proper officials in the position of Judicial Officer, The State Public Service Commission holds a competitive exam.
  4. The term District judge includes civil court judges, Additional district judges, joint district judges, chief Judge of a small cause court, assistant judge, session judge, Chief presidency magistrate, etc.

The Constitution of India is also known as a rule book. Judges act according to the rules that are written in the book. Hence, all the aspirant candidates should have complete knowledge of the constitution. They should be flawless with the laws, sections, and acts so that they can give justice to the innocents.

Characteristics Of A Judge

Now that we have learned about the judiciary system let us briefly look at the characteristics of a Judge to comprehend the responsibility that you have to take after being in the position of Judge.

  1. A Judge leads the court proceedings. Depending on the situation, a court proceeding may include a single Judge or a Judge panel, or a jury.
  2. A Judge has the administrative authority and is responsible for managing different federal cases, criminal cases, high-priority cases, or constitutional cases.
  3. He/she is expected to listen to all the witnesses with utmost concentration, check all the possible evidence, go through the court arguments and then come to a conclusion, and finish the case with the verdicts.

A judge has to be very careful with the verdicts because they have no right to punish the innocent. Hence they have to be very careful with the facts and evidence.

Eligibility criteria to become a Judge in India:-

While applying for the post of Judge, you should know the eligibility criteria. Here are the requirements that you should follow to become a Judge in India.

  1. The candidate should have a legal degree of law from a reputed University.
  2. He/ She must have experience as an Advocate and hold membership in the State Bar Council.
  3. The candidate must be a citizen Of India.
  4. The age limit varies from one state to another.

To meet your dream of becoming a Judge, you must pass the Judicial Service Examination conducted by the state’s Public Service Commission. You can consider the exam as an Entry Exam or degree to become an associate of the subordinate judiciary system. Now, what are Judicial Service Examinations? Let us have a look at it.

A comprehensive study of Indian Judicial Service Examination

The judicial Service examination offers a comfortable and secure tenure. It assures that the successful can serve their country. Every year around 50000-60,000 aspirant candidates appears in this exam, but very few students can taste the success.

What are the Judicial Service Examinations?

Judicial Service Examinations is the civil service judicial examination referred to as the entrance exam for law graduates. This degree helps the candidate to become part of the subordinate court.

Eligibility Criteria For the Judicial Services Examination  

The Lower Judiciary services – The criteria for sitting in the exam of Judicial Service Examination is the candidate should have a degree of LLB. He/ She should have enrolled as an advocate under the Advocates’ Act 1961. The final year student can also appear for the exam as it doesn’t require lots of experience. Generally, the age limit varies from state to state. But the age limit is around 21 to 35 years,

Higher Judiciary Services – The qualification criteria for the candidate are the same as the lower judiciary service, and the candidate should hold the degree of LLB. In this case, the student should have at least seven years of practice to become the Judge of the higher court.

Eligible Candidate Age Limit The experience they should have :
Fresher 21-25 They should have a legal degree of law with 55 % of marks.
Pleader, Attorney or Advocate 21-35 A degree of law is a must. The candidate should have practiced as a pleader, attorney or advocate in the subordinate court or high court.
Officials of the ministerial staff of the high court, subordinate to the high court 21-45 3 years of service experience after completion of degree of law.

Apart from all these eligibilities, the candidate should have the proficient skills to write, read and speak in the language of the state.

Name Of The States That Conduct The Judicial Service Examinations To Become The Judge In India

Not every state is capable of holding this extensive exam. Here is the name of some conditions which maintains the exam for the students

  1. Madhya Pradesh,
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Uttar Pradesh
  4. Assam
  5. Punjab
  6. Rajasthan
  7. Bihar
  8. Jammu and Kashmir,
  9. Manipur
  10. Sikkim
  11. Mizoram
  12. Odisha
  13. West Bengal
  14. Kerala
  15. Chhattisgarh
  16. Bihar etc.

Syllabus and Exam Pattern of the Judicial Service examinations

The first step you need to take is to clear the CLAT exam based on your educational qualifications. Once the standard Law admission test is completed, you will have to remove the Judicial exam, which the high court then conducts in association with the state public service commission.

For clearing the Common Law Admission Test or CLAT, you have to learn and increase your knowledge about the Constitution Of India. You have to study different types of law and where you can use them. This will assist you in the future when you work as a lawyer.

Once you achieve the degree, you can prepare yourself for the Public service commission so that your profile can match the eligibility criteria of becoming a judge. The syllabus differs from one state to another. The syllabus is mainly divided into criminal law, ciLaw law, and a language paper. The 20 to 35 % of marks will be allotted in the language paper. The main Examinations contain seven papers, in which around 70 % of questions are based on law.

The structure of the Judicial exam has been divided into three stages,

  • Preliminary examination.
  • Main Examinations.
  • Viva-voce or Personal Interview.

If you are serious about becoming a Judge of India, you have to focus on the studies. The exam needs lots of concentration. You have to enhance your personality and communication skills so that you don’t fail the personality test.

A Step-By-Step Guide To Become A Judge In India

Generally, if you are a serious candidate who is willing to take a judge’s responsibility, you have to cross two hurdles or, better to say, entrance examinations. You have to pass the first exam after you complete your school or graduation to step into the world of law institute. And the second entrance exam is the State-level Public service commission. Here are the detailed steps that a candidate needs to conduct for becoming a Judge of India. These steps will help you to decide:

  • Step 1:- You have to clear the CLAT examinations to take admission in law. that the end of the final session, You have to achieve at least 55 % in your LLB degree.
  • Step 2:- Once you get the final degree of the LLB, you can start preparing and apply for the Public service commission examination.
  • Step 3:- You have to clear the PSC exam with good marks. If you have both the PSC exam and experience as an advocate, you can apply for the Judge profile either for subordinate court or the high court.
  • Step 4:- If you want to become a judge in the higher courts, there are some additional criteria that your profile should have; you should have experience of 5 years in the lower court. If you fulfil the requirements, you are ready to be a judge of the High court.

The above mentioned are the 4- step that will guide you to become a judge in India. You have to work on yourself, gain more knowledge and experience, polish your skills, and become the most suitable choice for the Judge profile.

How are the Judges Of the Supreme Court appointed?

The president appoints the Judge of the supreme court after consulting the chief justice and other judicial bodies.

How much does a judge earn in India?

As Judges are the apex authority of our government, they are paid quite a handsome salary that India’s central government decides. The salary structure of the high court and subordinate court varies from one state to another.

How can I become a Judge after the 12th examinations?

The minimum eligibility criteria are two years of law degree after graduation. Or you can also take the five years law course after the 12th. Once you get the degree of graduation, you have to sit for the Public Service Commission exam.

Who is the youngest high court judge in India?

The youngest judge of the High court was MC Chagla, who was appointed as a judge at 41.


If you are hunting for a respectable and reputed job and want to serve your nations, a Judge of the Indian Court is the best choice a person can make. Getting the job is a lengthy process. You have to keep calm and continue your preparation for this respected profile. Don’t forget that the Judiciary is the apex authority of our country. And Being a Judge means you will have to the enormous amount of responsibility. The preparation time will make you eligible for the post. You will become flawless with the constitutions of India, which will help you decide and provide justice to innocence. You can completely trust us because this waiting time will bring you a future, which will never let you down. Just ensure that you are making your preparation for the examination is going well. If you do so, nothing can stop you from being a Judge. You don’t have to worry about the pay scale. It’s pretty high and varies from one place to another. The tenure of the supreme court judge ends at the age of 65 years, and the period of the High Court judge ends at the age of 62 years.